Sunday, September 30, 2012

42 Eduardo Torroja y Miret Structures

Eduardo Torroja y Miret (1891 – 1961) was a Spanish architect and engineer, notable as a pioneer in the design of concrete-shell structures. Torroja graduated as an engineer in 1923 and began working with a contractor. He became a consulting engineer in 1927 (http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9072985, 9/7/05).

With José Maria Aguirre he founded, in 1934, an experimental institute to develop new uses and theories for reinforced concrete.

Torroja's brilliant career as a designer and engineer was interrupted during the Spanish Civil War, which lasted from 1936 to 1939.  During this time, some of his innovative structures were destroyed.

We see the influence of Torroja's four decades of design in thin-shell structures around the world today.

This collection of Eduardo Torroja structures is extensive; however, I would love to see a comprehensive list.  Please let me know of any omissions and I will add them.  Following the collection is a list of websites that were extremely helpful in the writing of this post.

Eduardo Torroja y Miret Structures
(in chronological order)

1.  Sancti Petri Bridge Caissons, Cádiz, Andalusia, Spain, Europe

Completed in: 1926
Structural Type:  Bridge caissons
Materials:  Brick shells, circular in plan, with an interior space filled with concrete.  Exterior and interior  walls formed concentric hyperboloids of revolution with a common vertical axis.  Surface of brick covered with steel mesh and cement mortar.

Diameter: 7 m; Height: 6 m; Brick thickness: 8 cm.

Engineer: Jose Eugenio Ribera
Engineer: Eduardo Torroja y Miret




2. Tempul Aqueduct, Jerez de la Frontera, Cádiz, Andalusia, Spain, Europe

Completed in: 1926
Structural Type: Cable-stayed bridge
Materials: Reinforced concrete

Main span: 60.40 m; Length of side spans: 2 x 20.10 m

Designer: Eduardo Torroja y Miret






3.  Hotel in El Plantio, Spain, Europe

Completed in 1928

The whole building is built in reinforced concrete.  The slab is a solid slab supported by a series of beams which, in turn, are supported by brackets with walls between them.  The foundation is a continuous slab.

Designer: Eduardo Torroja y Miret


4.  Hotel in Seville, Seville, Andalusia, Spain, Europe

Completed in 1929

The whole building is built in reinforced concrete.  The slab is a solid slab supported by a series of beams which, in turn, are supported by brackets with walls between them.  The foundation is a continuous slab.

The project is organized by juxtaposition of structural modules consisting of square or rectangular slab segments of three different dimensions:  4.00 m x 4.00 m side square and rectangular 6.00 m x 4.00 m and 2.00 m x 4.00 m.

Designer: Eduardo Torroja y Miret


5.  Stadium Station (Estacion de Estadio - Ciudad Universitaria), Madrid, Madrid, Spain, Europe

Completed in: 1932
Structural Type: Underground tram station
Materials: Reinforced concrete

Designer: Eduardo Torroja y Miret
(The station is currently used as a gardening store.  The stairs have disappeared and the current grade of the street is one meter above the floor of the station.)




6.  Aire Viaduct (Viaducto del aire), Ciudad Universitaria, Madrid, Madrid, Spain, Europe

Completed in: 1933
Structural Type: Arch bridge
Materials:
     Piers: Reinforced concrete
     Arch: Reinforced concrete
     Deck slab: Reinforced concrete

Dimensions: rise = 7.38 m; arch span = 36 m.

Designer: Eduardo Torroja y Miret
(Status: Buried)





7.  Instituto Ramiro De Maeztu Pavilion Canopy, Madrid, Madrid, Spain, Europe

Completed in: 1933
Structural Type:  Cantilever canopy
Materials: Reinforced Concrete

Architect: Carlos Arniches Molto
Architect: Martin Dominguez Esteban

Engineer: Eduardo Torroja y Miret




8. The Botanical Garden, or Cantarranas Retaining Wall, Ciudad Universitaria, Madrid, Madrid, Spain, Europe

Completed in: 1933
Structural Type: Retaining Wall
Materials: Reinforced concrete

Designer: Eduardo Torroja y Miret




9. Quince Ojos Viaduct, Madrid, Madrid, Spain, Europe

Completed in: 1933
Structural Type: Free cantilever girder bridge
Materials:
     Piers: Reinforced concrete
     Deck: Reinforced concrete

Span lengths: 15 x 7 m

Designer: Eduardo Torroja y Miret
Architect: Modesto López Otero
Architect: Augustin Aguirre
(The bridge looks like an arch bridge, but due to the joints placed at each center of a span, the half-arches actually carry as cantilevers.)







10. Algeciras Market Hall (Mercado de Algeciras), Algeciras, Cádiz, Andalusia, Spain

Completed in: 1934
Structural Type: Thin-shell structure
Materials:
     Piers: Reinforced concrete
     Shell: Reinforced concrete

Shell diameter: 47.62 m; thickness: min 10 cm.

Architect: Manuel Sánchez Arcas
Engineer: Eduardo Torroja y Miret






11. Hospital Clinico, Madrid, Madrid, Spain, Europe

Completed in: 1934
Structural Type: Frame
Materials:
     Building structure:  Reinforced concrete
     Frame structure:  Reinforced concrete

Width: 204 m; Length; 220 m

Architect: Manuel Sánchez Arcas
Engineer: Eduardo Torroja y Miret
(The original operating theaters were damaged during the Spanish Civil war and later demolished. The current operating theaters however are modeled on the original one.)






12. Frontón Recoletos, Madrid, Madrid, Spain, Europe

Completed in: 1935
Structural Type: Barrel shell
Materials: Reinforced concrete

Diameter:  6.40 x 12.20 m; Covered area:  55 x 32.50 m

Designer: Eduardo Torroja y Miret
(Used for "pelota vasca" games. The building was destroyed during the Spanish Civil War.)








13. Church of Villaverde Cupola and Roof, Madrid, Madrid, Spain, Europe

Completed in: 1935
Structural Type: Domed cupola and roof
Materials: Reinforced concrete

Engineer: Eduardo Torroja y Miret







14. Zarzuela Hippodrome, Madrid, Madrid, Spain, Europe

Completed in: 1935
Structural Type: Horizontal cantilever structure
Materials: Reinforced concrete

Span: 12.67 m

Architect: Martín Dominguez
Architect: Carlos Arniches
Engineer: Eduardo Torroja y Miret







15. Hotel Condestable, Burgos, Spain, Europe

Completed in: 1937

Architect: Manuel Sanchez Arcas
Architect: Marcos Rico Santa Maria
Engineer: A. Rubio
Engineer: Eduardo Torroja y Miret





16. Alloz Aqueduct (Acueducto sobre el río Salado), Alloz, Navarre, Spain, crossing the Salado River

Completed in: 1939
Structural Type: Girder bridge
Materials:
     Piers: Reinforced concrete
     Girder: Prestressed concrete

Span lengths: 40 m

Designer: Eduardo Torroja y Miret





17. Muga Bridge, Rosas, Girona, Catalonia, Spain, Europe

Completed in: 1939
Structural Type: Simply-supported Warren deck truss bridge
Materials:
     Truss:  Steel
     Deck slab:  Reinforced concrete

Span lengths: 3 x 30.50 m

Designer: Eduardo Torroja y Miret
Engineer: G. Andreu




18. Tordera Bridge, Tordera, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain, Europe

Completed in: 1939
Structural Type: Lenticular bridge
Materials:
     Truss: Steel
     Deck slab: Reinforced concrete

Total length: 145.8 m; Span lengths: 45.70 m - 54.85 m - 45.70 m; Deck width: 8.55 m*

Designer: Eduardo Torroja y Miret
Engineer: G. Andreu
Engineer: Cesar Villalba Granda
*During 1993 - 1994 The bridge was rehabilitated and widened to 11.5 m.






19. Pedrido Bridge, La Coruña, La Coruña, Galicia, Spain, Europe

Completed in: 1940
Structural Type: Tied-arch bridge
Materials: Reinforced concrete

Main span: 75.00 m; Rise max: 11.65 m

Designer: Eduardo Torroja y Miret
Engineer: Cesar Villalba Granda





20. The Zarzuela Hippodrome Reservoir, Madrid, Madrid, Spain, Europe

Completed in: 1941
Structural Type:  Hyperboloid reservoir tower
Materials: Brick (reinforced afterward) and concrete

Designer: Eduardo Torroja y Miret





21. Martín Gil Viaduct, Zamora, Zamora, Castile-Leon, Spain, Europe

Completed in: 1942
Structural Type: Arch bridge
Materials: Reinforced concrete

Rise: 64.75 m; Total length: 408 m; Span lengths: 5 x 22.00 m - 209.84 m - 3 x 22.00 m; Arch span 209.84

Designer: Eduardo Torroja y Miret
Engineer: Cesar Villalba Granda
Engineer: Antonio Salazar
Contractor: OMES y R. Barredo
(Located on the Zamora-La Coruña line, at 20 km from Zamora, crossing the Esla River. World record of span, until 1953, in its typology.)






22. Las Corts Stadium Grandstand, Barcelona, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain, Europe

Completed in: 1943
Structural Type: Horizontal cantilever structure
Materials:
     Truss:  Steel
     Building structure:  Reinforced concrete

Span: 27 m

Architect: J. M. Sagnier
Designer: Eduardo Torroja y Miret







23. Hangares Torrejon-Barajas, Madrid, Madrid, Spain, Europe

Completed in: 1945
Material:  Steel truss hinged on support of reinforced concrete

Engineer: Eduardo Torroja y Miret
Constructor:  Omes






24. Instituto Técnico de la Construcción Eduardo Torroja - Main building, Madrid, Madrid, Spain, Europe

Completed in: 1948
Structural Type: Truss

Architect: Manuel Barbero
Architect: Gonzalo Echegaray
Engineer: Eduardo Torroja y Miret


25. Instituto Técnico de la Construcción Eduardo Torroja - Pergola

Completed in: 1948

Architect: Manuel Barbero
Architect: Gonzalo Echegaray
Engineer: Eduardo Torroja y Miret


26. Añorga Fronton Roof, San Sebastián, Guipúzcoa, Basque Country, Spain, Europe

Completed in: 1949
Structural Type: Thin shell
Materials: Reinforced concrete (5 cm thick)

Span: 12 m
Engineer: Eduardo Torroja y Miret
Engineer: Juan Batanero






27. Cuatro Vientos Hangar, Madrid, Madrid, Spain, Europe

Completed in: 1949
Structural Type: Truss Function
Materials:
     Truss:  Steel

Arch span: 35 m

Designer: Eduardo Torroja y Miret








28. Instituto Técnico de la Construcción Eduardo Torroja - Coal Silo, Madrid, Madrid, Spain

Completed in: 1951

Architect: Manuel Barbero
Architect: Gonzalo Echegaray
Engineer: Eduardo Torroja y Miret



29. Instituto Técnico de la Construcción Eduardo Torroja - Dining Hall, Madrid, Madrid, Spain, Europe

Completed in: 1951

Architect: Manuel Barbero
Architect: Gonzalo Echegaray
Engineer: Eduardo Torroja y Miret



30. The Posadas Bridge over the Guadalquivir River, Posadas, Cordoba, Andalucia, Spain, Europe

Completed in: 1951
Structural Type:  Lenticular bridge
Materials:
     Truss: Steel
     Deck slab: Reinforced concrete

Length: 235 m; Width: 11 m

Designer: Eduardo Torroja y Miret




31. Chapel of the Ascension,  Xerrallo, Lleida, Catalonia, Spain, Europe

Completed in: 1952
Structural Type: Thin shell
Materials: Reinforced concrete

Architect: J. R. Mijares
Engineer: Eduardo Torroja y Miret



32. Pont de Suert Church, El Pont de Suert, Lleida, Catalonia, Spain, Europe

Completed in: 1952
Structural Type: Thin shell
Materials: Hollow reinforced bricks

Height: 18.00 m; Length: 32.95 m

Architect: J. R. Mijares
Engineer: Eduardo Torroja y Miret





33. Chapel of the Holy Spirit (Capilla del Sancti Spirit), Pirineo de Lérida, Lleida, Catalonia, Spain, Europe

Completed in: 1953
Structural Type: Thin shell
Materials: Reinforced concrete

Width: 9.00 m; Height: 8.15 m; Length: 14.25 m

Designer: Eduardo Torroja y Miret
(Demolished in 1986.)

[No Photos Found]

34. Instituto Técnico de la Construcción Eduardo Torroja - Experimental Center, Madrid, Madrid, Spain, Europe

Completed in: 1953
Structural Type: Thin shell
Materials: Reinforced concrete

Length: 77.64 m; Width: 14.5m (2 floors)
Roof divided into seven sections of 9.60m.  Each section consists of a barrel vault formed by a triangular mesh of metal profiles.  The cross-section is arc-shaped with a 6.55 m radius.


Architect: Manuel Barbero
Architect: Gonzalo Echegarai
Engineer: Eduardo Torroja y Miret
Engineer: Florencio del Poso



35. Fedala Reservoir, Mohammedia, Greater Casablanca, Morocco, Africa

Completed in: 1957
Structural Type: Hyperbolic-paraboloid shell
Materials: Reinforced Concrete

Diameter max: 40 m; Reservoir capacity: 3,500 m^3; Shell thickness: 10 - 28 cm

Designer: Eduardo Torroja y Miret





36. Club Tachira, Caracas, Venezuela,  South America

Completed in: 1957
Structural Type: Clubhouse
Materials: Reinforced concrete

Designer: Eduardo Torroja y Miret





37. Canelles Dam, Lleida, Lleida, Catalonia, Spain, Europe

Completed in: 1958
Structural Type: Arch dam
Materials: Concrete

Height: 140 m

Designer: Eduardo Torroja y Miret
Engineer: Carlos Benito
(Located on the Rio Noguera Ribaorzana in the Spanish Pyreness.)




38.  Añorga Bola-Toki Roof, San Sebastián, Guipúzcoa, Basque Country, Spain, Europe

Completed in: 1958

Structural Type: Thin shell
Materials: Reinforced concrete

Engineer: Eduardo Torroja y Miret
(Design based on repeated interlaced conical surfaces.)





39. Gandia Church, Gandia, Valencia, Valencia, Spain, Europe
(Esglesia de St. Nicolau del Grau, Gandia)

Completed in: 1961
Structural Type: Thin shell
Materials: Reinforced concrete

Height: 14.15 m

Architect: Gonzalo Echegaray
Engineer: Jaime Nadal
Engineer: Eduardo Torroja y Miret





40. Sebou Bridge, Morocco, Africa

Completed in: 1961
Structural Type: Girder bridge
Materials:
     Superstructure:  Reinforced concrete, precast concrete
     Piers:  Reinforced concrete

Total length: 56.20 m; Span lengths: 4 x 18.40 m; Deck width: 4.50 m

Designer: Eduardo Torroja y Miret
Engineer: Alfredo Paez
[No Photos Found]

41. Dar Drius Bridge, Dar Drius, Morocco, Africa

Completed in: 1961
Structural Type: Girder bridge
Materials:
     Superstructure:  Precast concrete and reinforced concrete
     Piers:  Reinforced concrete

Total length: 83.40 m; Span lengths: 13.50 m - 3 x 18.80 m - 13.50 m; Deck width: 9.00 m

Designer: Eduardo Torroja y Miret
Engineer: Alfredo Paez
[No Photos Found]

42.  Amzez Bridge, Amzez, Morocco, Africa

Completed in: 1961
Structural Type: Girder bridge
Materials:
     Superstructure:  Precast and  reinforced concrete
     Piers: Reinforced concrete

Span lengths: 5 x 19.30 m

Designer: Eduardo Torroja y Miret
Engineer: Alfredo Paez
[No Photos Found]

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A big thanks to some great websites:
     Structurae
     Panoramio
     Tectonica

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